Temperature stress in plants ppt

Cold stress in plants

Temperature tolerance - SlideShar

Being sessile, plants are constantly exposed to changes in temperature and other abiotic stress factors. The temperature stress experienced by plants can be classified into three types: those occurring at (a) temperature below freezing (b) low temperature above freezing and (c) high temperature. The plants must adapt to them in other ways Freezing stress When plants are exposed to a low temperature below 00 c. Freezing damage occurs primarily due to the formation of ice crystals, which damage cell structure when the temperature falls below 00 C. 18 Stress in plants 1. Plant stresses and responses De Block et al., Plant J. 41:95 (2005) 2. Plants are sessile and must deal with stresses in place • Plants cannot avoid stress after germination • How plants deal with stress has implications in - Ecology: Stress responses help explain geographic distribution of species - Crop scienc Heat Stress This material was produced under grant # SH-29671-SH6 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U. S. Government

Dr. McLaughlin's slideshow on plant stress response. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads C- High Temperature and Heat Stress: The sudden increase in ambient maximum temperature, in a matter of few days, by 5-7°C with corresponding increase in the minimum temperature, creates ‗heat stress' on plants. The normal physiology of the plant gets affected and plant maturity is accelerated (4) Others. PK application, keep warm with artificial things. 2.2 High temperature stress and heat resistance of plants。 Cold-favored plants: some alga,bacteria and fungi,meets heat injury at 15-20℃ . Temperature-mediate plant: most of crops——35℃. Temperature-favored plants: some alga,bacteria 65-100℃,many CAM plants>50℃ High temperature stress adversely affects every physiological activity or metabolic process in plants. Land plants have to tolerate an environment of changing temperature, and such changes may diurnal or seasonal. The upper temperature limits at which the different organisms may grow and survive have been found to vary considerably

Temperature stress in plants is classified into three types depending on the stressor, which may be high, chilling or freezing temperature. Temperature-stressed plants show low germination rates,.. Abstract Temperature stress in plants is classified into three types depending on the stressor, which may be high, chilling or freezing temperature. Temperature‐stressed plants show low germination rates, growth retardation, reduced photosynthesis, and often die Pulse legumes are particularly sensitive to heat stress at the bloom stage; only a few days of exposure to high temperatures (30-35 °C) can cause heavy yield losses through flower drop or pod abortion (Siddique et al., 1999). In general, base and upper threshold temperatures vary in plant species belonging to different habitats

Cold stress in plants - SlideShar

  1. Many species of plants especially those native to tropical and subtropical regions are susceptible to chilling injury. For instance, exposure to a temperature of 1°C to 5°C for 24 to 36 hours is fatal or markedly injurious to crop plants such as rice, velvet beans, cotton and peanut, but less injurious to maize, tomatoes, sorghums and pumpkins
  2. Plants feel stress under high as well as low temper-ature exposure. Mesophilic temperate plants possess in-ducible temperature-stress tolerance. During high temperature exposure, stress tolerancecan be inducedby exposureto short-term elevated temperature and this is known as acquired ther-motolerance (Kotak et al., 2007), while at lower.
  3. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Chilling And Freezing Stress In Plants PPT. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint.com, find free presentations research about Chilling And Freezing Stress In Plants PPT
  4. ADVERTISEMENTS: The following points highlight the two main factors affecting low temperature stress. The factors are: 1. Effects of Chilling Stress 2. Effects of Freezing Stress. Low Temperature Stress: Factor # 1. Effects of Chilling Stress: Chilling stress affects several functions in plants including membrane structure and function, changes in nucleic and protein synthesis, water [
  5. UGA ooperative Extension B1467 Effects of Low Temperature on Plants 2 Temperature is an important environmental factor in plant growth and development. It governs the rate of photosynthesis (food production) and respiration (food utilization). Depending on its origin (e.g. tropical or temperate), each plant species ha
  6. Reviews have dealt with cold or heat response, but much of them were focused on the signalling pathways triggered by temperature stress, including the transcriptional regulatory networks, and on the physiological responses of plants to temperature change (Ruelland et al., 2009, Matsukura et al., 2010, von Koskull-Döring et al., 2007, Nakashima.

Heat stress - high temperature - affects the metabolism and structure of plants, especially cell membranes and many basic physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, and water relations [17]. On the molecular level, this effect of heat stress reflects the temperature dependence of Michaelis-Mento Stress in plants can be defined as any external factor that negatively influences plant growth, productivity, reproductive capacity or survival.Abiotic stres.. The susceptibility to high temperatures in plants varies with the stage of plant development, heat stress affecting to a certain extent all vegetative and reproductive stages. The observed effects depend on species and genotype, with abundant inter- and intra-specific variations ( Barnabás et al., 2008 ; Sakata and Higashitani, 2008 ) Breeding for heat stress tolerance in plants. Heat stress due to increased temperature is a very important problem globally. [citation needed] Occasional or prolonged high temperatures cause different morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in plants.The ultimate effect is on plant growth as well as development and reduced yield and quality Low Temperature Stress in Crop Plants: The Role of the Membrane contains the proceedings of an international seminar on Low Temperature Stress in Crop Plants held at the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, March 26-30, 1979. Organized into five parts, this book focuses on the fundamental mechanisms involved in the temperature response of.

Stress in plants - SlideShar

17. Estimation of proline content in plant tissue 64 -65 18. Photosynthesis 66 -71 19. Canopy Temperature Depression (CTD) 72 -73 20. Roo t aerenchyma identification under waterlogging 74 -75 21. Estimation of antioxidant enzymes 76 -80 22. Stress assessment formulas and stress related terminology 81 -87 23. Annexure -I 88 24 Plants respond to stress in several different ways. Plant stress can be divided into two primary categories. Abiotic stress is a physical (e.g., light, temperature) or chemical insult that the environment may impose on a plant. Biotic stress is a biological insult, (e.g., insects, disease) t

The following article will guide you about how plants cope with high temperature. The four ways are: 1. Acclimation to High Temperature 2. Membrane Composition 3. Morphological Adaptations and 4. Heat-Shock Proteins. Way # 1. Acclimation to High Temperature: Brief exposure of plants to sub-lethal temperatures may increase their thermo-.tolerance temperature stress, light stress, nutrient stress, heavy metal stress and pollution stress are known to accelerate the production of AOS in plants that cause damage to membrane systems and other cellular processes (Dat et al., 2000; Mittler, 2002; Mittler et al., 2004) Low temperature stress in crop plants 1st edition. Chapter 10 stress physiology. Cold injury and cold resistance in plants. Effect of temperature stress on the early vegetative development of. Heat stress in plants. Different cold-signaling pathways function in the responses to. Low temperature, high light stress and antioxidant defence temperature stress, light stress, nutrient stress, heavy metal stress and pollution stress are known to accelerate the production of AOS in plants that cause damage to membrane systems and other cellular processes (Dat et al., 2000; Mittler, 2002; Mittler et al., 2004) Amelioration of Low Temperature Stress Use of plant grow th regulators (PGRs) to induce low temperature stress tolerance in pants is one of the possible approach. In recent studies, several PGRs have been tested to alleviate the low temperature stress in plants [22, 23, 27, 28]

Plant response to stress - SlideShar

The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits. 1. Introduction. Temperature stress is becoming the major concern for plant scientists worldwide due to the changing climate. The difficulty of climate change is further added considering its precisely projecting potential agricultural impacts [1, 2].Temperature stress has devastating effects on plant growth and metabolism, as these processes have optimum temperature limits in every plant species

High Temperature Stress in Plants - Biology Discussio

Temperature Stress in Plants - ResearchGat

Temperature stress triggers a large amount of metabolic damage in plants with well-known effects on protein stability and enzymatic reactions (Szymańska et al., 2017). In addition, the changes. Heat stress due to increased temperature is an agricultural problem in many areas in the world. Transitory or constantly high temperatures cause an array of morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in plants, which affect plant growth and development and may lead to a drastic reduction in economic yield Whereas a biotic stress would include living disturbances such as fungi or harmful insects, abiotic stress factors, or stressors, are naturally occurring, often intangible and inanimate factors such as intense sunlight, temperature or wind that may cause harm to the plants and animals in the area affected. Abiotic stress is essentially unavoidable Plants are exposed to diff erent types of environmental stress conditions. Osmotic stress conditions, such as salinity, drought and low temperature are important factors limiting plant growth and. The work of Kidokoro et al. revealed that plants recognize cold stress as two different signals. One signal is caused by a rapid temperature drop, and this signalling pathway functions during both the day and night

The plant requires a set of optimal conditions, including temperature, to perform their biochemical and physiological behavior and any short or long term fluctuations may bring them under stress. The seed germination in plants is dependent upon temperature and usually inhibited by high temperature stress-induced morphological and anatomical changes in plants. Chapter 3 : Abiotic stress responses in plants Ð metabolism to productivity. Chapter 4 : Approaches to increasing salt tolerance in crop plants. Chapter 5 : Understanding and exploiting the impact of drought stress on plant physiol-ogy 6 Adaptive responses in plants to nonoptimal soil pH 145 V. RAMI´REZ-RODRI´GUEZ, J. LO´PEZ-BUCIO and L. HERRERA-ESTRELLA 6.1 Introduction 145 6.2 Soil pH 146 6.3 Soil acidification 146 6.4 Acid soils 147 6.5 Calcareous soils 148 6.6 Plant responses to soil stress 149 6.7 Plant responses to heavy metals 150 6.8 Aluminum tolerance by exclusion 15

Temperature Stress in Plants - Kai - - Major Reference

Heat tolerance in plants: An overview - ScienceDirec

On the other hand, a study of the heat‐induced response of leaf chlorophyll fluorescence (Fig. 6) indicated that critical temperatures for photosynthesis (T c, i.e. the temperature at which tissue necrosis and a sharp increase in F 0 occurred) increased in water‐stressed white lupin by approx. 2·5 °C compared with well‐watered plants and Paulsen, 1999). In cotton, temperature is a primary controller of the rate of plant growth, developmental events, and fruit maturation (Baker, 1965). An optimum temperature range of 20 to 30oC has been reported for cotton (Reddy et al, 1991), but cotton is successfully grown at temperatures in excess of 40oC in India and Pakistan for. Abiotic Stress in Plants and Metabolic Responses, Abiotic Stress - Plant Responses and Applications in Agriculture, Kourosh Vahdati and Charles Leslie, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/54859. Available from: Saúl Fraire-Velázquez and Victor Emmanuel Balderas-Hernández (March 13th 2013) Plant Archives Vol. 14 No. 2, 2014 pp. 643-648 ISSN 0972-5210 SALINITY STRESS IN RICE : AN OVERVIEW Ashu Singh* and R. S. Sengar Tissue Culture Lab, College of Biotechnology, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel University of Agriculture & Technology Tomato is one of the most often cultivated vegetable species worldwide. Due to the anti-oxidative and anti-cancer properties of lycopene, tomato consumption as well as production is still increasing. However, its productivity is impaired by a wide range of abiotic stresses, and the establishment of stress-tolerant crops is a key challenge for agricultural biotechnology

Cold Injury and Cold Resistance in Plant

  1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a normal product of plant cellular metabolism. Various environmental stresses lead to excessive production of ROS causing progressive oxidative damage and ultimately cell death. Despite their destructive activity, they are well-described second messengers in a variety of cellular processes, including conferment of tolerance to various environmental.
  2. Stress (biotic or abiotic) is an unfavourable condition for an organism including fungus. To overcome stress, organism expresses heat-shock proteins (Hsps) or chaperons to perform biological function. Hsps are involved in various routine biological processes such as transcription, translation and posttranslational modifications, protein folding, and aggregation and disaggregation of proteins
  3. Here, I review cold stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. The major points discussed are the following: (1) physiological effects of cold stress, (2) sensing of cold temperatures and signal transduction, and (3) the role of various cold-responsive genes and transcription factors in the mechanism of cold stress tolerance

Drought stress is affected by climatic, edaphic and agronomic factors. The susceptibility of plants to drought stress varies in dependence of stress degree, different accompanying stress factors, plant species, and their developmental stages (Demirevska et al., 2009) Under field conditions crops are routinely subjected to a number of different abiotic stress factors simultaneously. Recent studies revealed that the response of plants to a combination of different abiotic stresses is unique and cannot be directly extrapolated from simply studying each of the different stresses applied individually Abstract. Plant stress is a state where the plant is growing in non-ideal growth conditions that increase the demands made upon it. The effects of stress can lead to deficiencies in growth, crop yields, permanent damage or death if the stress exceeds the plant tolerance limits As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress-signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing Literature reports in the past decades, had shown that during in vivo growth condition of plants, adverse environmental stress and climatic factors that includes drought, temperature extremes (freezing and heat), light irradiance, nutrients deficiency and soil contamination with high concentrations of ions (metals and salts) are main stressors that influence plant physiology (Fig. 1) with.

Low temperature stress can influent plant photosynthesis and decrease the utilization of light [16, 17]. We examined the content of chlorophyll under low temperature of 1°C and −10°C. Compared with the control, the chlorophyll content in seedling leaves under low temperature was lower than that under room temperature Plants lacking the APX1 gene have a significantly lower survival rate under the stress combination compared with wild-type plants, although survival under a single stress is unaffected. The cytosolic location of APX1 suggests that dual heat and drought stress may cause a critical build-up of H 2 O 2 in the cytosol, leading to cell injury and.

INTRODUCTION. Temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that affect plant growth and development. Cold stress in plants is categorized into chilling stress (0-20°C) and freezing stress (<0°C), based on the temperatures and various physiological mechanisms that function in different temperature ranges (1980) Turgor maintenance by osmotic adjustement: a review and evaluation. in Adaptation of Plants to Water and High Temperature Stress. eds Turner NC, Kramer PJ (John Wiley & Sons, New York), pp 78 - 103 Heat stress (HS) is often defined as the rise in temperature beyond a threshold level for a period of time sufficient to cause irreversible damage to plant growth and development. A transient increase in temperature of 10-15°C above ambient is generally considered as heat shock or heat stress (HS) 1.3 Adaptation of extreme temperature stress. Exposure to extreme temperatures (chilling, freezing, or HT) causes detrimental effects on plant productivity and crop yields. The semiarid regions of the world are particularly vulnerable to the weather variability associated with climate change (Arab Water Council, 2009)

Cold stress tolerance mechanisms in plants

Stress change the TIR spectral behavior of plants. Dry treatment cause changes in the 4-6µm region (water region). TIR spectra also show differences in the range 7-12.5µm, probably related with biochemistry and microstructure of the leaf. Results are not consistent across 2 species. Next steps Ge n.Ap p l. pl A n t ph y s i o l oRemote sensing of plant stressG y, 2008, sp e c i A l issue, 34 (1-2), 19-32 19 THERMAL AND OTHER REMOTE SENSING OF PLANT STRESS H. G. Jones1* and P. Schofield1 1Division of Plant Sciences, University of Dundee at SCRI, Invergowrie, DUNDEE DD2 5DA, Scotland Summary. In this paper we outline the ways in which therma

HIGH TEMPERATURE IN RELATION TO GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RICE PLANT. Temperature, along with photoperiod, is the main driving force for crop development (Kropff et al. Reference Kropff, Mathews, Van Laar, Ten Berge, Mathews, Kropff, Bachelet and van Laar 1995).The optimum temperature for the normal development of rice ranges from 27 to 32°C (Yin et al Capturing traits providing heat stress tolerance in wheat using precision phenotyping Indu Sharma and Ratan Tiwari DWR, Karnal, Haryana, India 3rd Int. Plant Phenotyping Symposiu m organized by MSSRF, Chennai, Session 1: Breeding for novel traits, 17.2.201 temperature (WBGT) to measure heat stress. This calculation takes into account air temperature, radiant heat and humidity. Exposure standards are divided into categories based on physical activity and workers' acclimatization. Adjustments are made for wearing types of Abstract. High temperatures pose a serious threat to productivity maintenance and enhancement in wheat. A strategy that has come forward in the CIMMYT breeding program is the development of high yielding early maturing lines that are adapted to high temperature stress especially for South Asia Heat stress is a common reality in poultry production, its effects are quite complex and harmful and depend on the intensity and duration of the exposure to high temperatures. The gut is affected by heat stress through several pathways, including organ ischemia and hypoxia, as well as oxidative stress

Drought, salt, and temperature stresses are major environmental factors that affect the geographical distribution of plants in nature, limit plant productivity in agriculture, and threaten food security Define temperature stress. temperature stress synonyms, temperature stress pronunciation, temperature stress translation, English dictionary definition of temperature stress. The Indian contributors describe the role of phytochrome and B vitamins in physiological plant processes, mechanisms of metalloid uptake, sucrose nonfermenting-1.

Abiotic stresses such as drought, flooding, high or low temperatures, metal toxicity and salinity can hamper plant growth and development. Improving Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants explains the physiological and molecular mechanisms plants naturally exhibit to withstand abiotic stresses and outlines the potential approaches to enhance plant abiotic stress tolerance to extreme conditions. Heat stress can result in heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, or heat rashes. Heat can also increase the risk of injuries in workers as it may result in sweaty palms, fogged-up safety glasses, and dizziness. Burns may also occur as a result of accidental contact with hot surfaces or steam The potential plant growth rate is limited by soil water stress through SWFAC and temperature through PT. The plant cycle is divided in vegetative and reproductive phrases. The vegetative phase continues until the plant reaches a genetically determined maximum leaf number Heat stress is one of the primary abiotic stresses that limit crop production. Grape (Vitis vinifera) is a cultivated fruit with high economic value throughout the world, with its growth and development often influenced by high temperature. Alternative splicing (AS) is a widespread phenomenon increasing transcriptome and proteome diversity

An increase in global temperatures may have either or both of these two acute effects: more frequent high temperature stress and less frequent cold temperature stress. Increase in temperature will lengthen the effective growing season in areas where agricultural potential is currently limited by cold temperature stress temperatures above 32ºC and especially, by high night-time temperatures above 21ºC (Moore and Thomas 1952). Re-ports of high temperature stress causing marked reduction in anthesis, blossom drop and fruit set for tomato are 30ºC and 45ºC (Iwahori and Takahashi 1963), as little as 4 hours exposure to 40ºC during flowering (Bar-Tsur 1977), abov Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions. They were first described in relation to heat shock, but are now known to also be expressed during other stresses including exposure to cold, UV light and during wound healing or tissue remodeling. Many members of this group perform chaperone functions by stabilizing. Salinity is a major abiotic stress limiting growth and productivity of plants in many areas of the world due to increasing use of poor quality of water for irrigation and soil salinization. Plant adaptation or tolerance to salinity stress involves complex physiological traits, metabolic pathways, and molecular or gene networks. A comprehensive understanding on how plants respond to salinity. well as movement of plant. Plant physiology is the science that studies plant function: what is going on in plants that accounts for their being alive (Salisbury and Ross, 1992). Another definition of plant physiology by Taiz and Zeiger (2010) is the study of plant function, encompassing the dynamic processes of growth, metabolis

PPT - Evidence of phenology shifts PowerPoint Presentation

At the end of the treatment period, the plants were carried back to the greenhouse and raised with the control plants until maturity. In the heat stress chamber, the plants were kept under a 16-hour photoperiod regime and a light intensity of 350 μmol m -2 s -1 produced by metal halide lamps. The temperature profile was applied as follows. High temperature stress or drought conditions have adverse effects on plant development, including unalterable damage to plant growth and development, decreased photosynthesis [ 27 ], decreased amount of panicles in each plant and elongation of peduncle, limited pollen output, no pollen grain swelling, and reduced spikelet sterility As water supply is critical for plant growth, it plays a key role in determining the distribution of plants. Changes in precipitation are predicted to be less consistent than for temperature and more variable between regions, with predictions for some areas to become much wetter, and some much drier. A change in water availability would show a direct correlation to the growth rates and. element in an Arabidopsis gene is involved in responsiveness to BMC Plant Biol 3:6 drought, low-temperature, or high-salt stress. Plant Cell 6:251-264 123 Related Papers. Functional role of DREB and ERF transcription factors: regulating stress-responsive network in plants. By Tariq.

Excessively low or high temperatures may cause: plant stress, inhibit growth, or promote a spindly appearance and foliage damage or drop. Cool nighttime temperatures are actually more desirable for plant growth than high temperatures. A good rule of thumb is to keep nighttime temperatures 10 to 15 degrees lower than daytime temperatures The tissue succulence engineering method devised for this small flowering plant can be used in other plants to improve drought and salinity tolerance with the goal of moving this approach into food and bioenergy crops. Water-storing tissue is one of the most successful adaptations in plants that enables them to survive long periods of drought

Temperature - the ability to withstand extremes in temperature varies widely among plants & animals Animals respond to variation in temperature both physiologically and behaviorally. Birds and mammals are endotherms ('hot-blooded') & maintain relatively high body temperatures using the heat by their own metabolism Crop plants encounter environmental stresses, both abiotic and biotic stresses. Abiotic stress has main impact on the crop productivity worldwide, reducing average yields for major crop plants. These abiotic stresses are interconnected as osmotic stress, resulting in the disruption of ion distribution and homeostasis in the cell. It is mainly due to changes in the expression patterns of a. Low temperature, drought, and high salinity are common stress conditions that adversely affect plant growth and crop production. The cellular and molecular responses of plants to environmental stress have been studied intensively ([Thomashow, 1999][1]; [Hasegawa et al., 2000][2]). Understanding th Growth regulating substances, plant hormones or simply phytohormones are compounds produced naturally by plants that participate in control of plant growth, as well as they are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth. When these substances are produced synthetically, they are called plant growth regulators (PGRs) (Santneret al., 2009 The correlation between canopy temperature and plant water status becomes stronger as plant water status is reduced. Therefore, measurements should be made under well-developed drought stress, typically when most of the materials in the nursery present some leaf wilting or leaf rolling at midday

Considering that salinity is a stable stress, plants will be permanently exposed to it during their growth period. Seed germination as the most important stage of plant growth is also affected by salinity. Increased Na+ uptake in plants under salinity disturbs those metabolic processes that require low Na+ and high K+, Ca2+ or both for. If plants are exposed to temperatures of 50 degrees F or lower for more than 12 hours, they will often develop reddish color in the older leaves. Mean daily temperatures above 80 degrees F or day temperatures exceeding 85 degrees F for 12 hours or more can cause a loss of chlorophyll (heat stress) in the youngest leaves and cause a sharp. Gene discovery leading to improved drought stress tolerance in plants via gene transfer. Introduction by gene transfer of several stress-inducible genes has demonstrably enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic plants (Zhang et al., 2004; Bartels and Sunkar, 2005; Umezawa et al., 2006a). These particular genes encode key enzymes.

High temperature (HT) stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high. Taking these into consideration, Wen et al. suggested that the high temperature is a critical stress to seeds in tropical areas, where soil surface temperatures can be very high, thus high-temperature tolerance in seeds may be a requirement for them to survive in bare ground habitats. This was supported by the present study, i.e., seeds of all.

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The Effects of Temperature On Plant Growth. The ideal temperature range for plant growth without CO2 supplementation is 70-75 degrees.Temperature is probably the factor that causes the most problems in an indoor garden. When the temperature in a garden climbs higher than 85 degrees, plant growth damage can happen quickly Compute the temperature stress at the edge and if the sum of the temperature stress and the flexural stress due to highest wheel load is greater than the modulus of rupture, select a higher thickness and repeat the above steps Design the pavement thickness on basis of corner tress if no dowel bars are provide 8. Globe temperature is the temperature inside a blackened, hollow, thin copper globe. 9. Metabolic heat is a by-product of the body's activity. 10. Natural wet bulb (NWB) temperature is measured by exposing a wet sensor, such as a wet cotton wick fitted over the bulb of a thermometer, to the effects of evaporation and convection

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