The pass system, Indian Act

Indian Act and the Pass Syste

The Indian Act is the primary legislation used to govern First Nations people for the last 140 years. The Indian Act has been a lightning rod for criticism and controversy over the years, widely.. This article is part of our series on the Indian Act and the many restrictions historically imposed on First Nations as a means of controlling them and assimilating them into European culture. Or, in the words of John A. Macdonald to do away with the Indian problem. Under the Indian Act the reserve system was created which effectively removed First Nations from their traditional. The pass system was first implemented as an emergency measure — designed to be temporary — in response to the North-West Rebellion led by Louis Riel, as the Canadian government was concerned.. The Natives (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act of 1952, commonly known as the Pass Laws Act, repealed the many regional pass laws and instituted one nationwide pass law, which made it compulsory for all black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry the passbook at all times within white areas A Pass system was rigorously enforced to keep the men inside their designated areas and prevented the workers' families from visiting them. Coloured and Indian people. The Separate Amenities Act, which was passed in 1953, completed this separation by forcing different race groups, European and Non-European, to use separate facilities and.

Pass System in Canada The Canadian Encyclopedi

Macdonald authorized the pass system, which required First Nations to obtain permission from their Indian agent to leave their reserve. His government also criminalized powwows and potlatches. Both.. In 1851, Congress passed the Indian Appropriations Act which created the Indian reservation system and provided funds to move Indian tribes onto farming reservations and hopefully keep them under.. Essentially, the pass system was a segregationist scheme which, without any legislative basis, required Indians to remain on their reserves unless they had a pass, duly signed by the Indian agent or farm instructor and specifying the purpose and duration oftheir absence About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features Press Copyright Contact us Creators.

The pass system: another dark secret in Canadian history

Should Congress pass the Indian Removal Act of 1830? Was a known Indian fighter Did not believe that Indians could assimilate to white culture Supported states' rights to govern all land within their border and distorted by the imposition of Indian Act government systems.1 It is important to understand both the origins and impact of the Indian Act. The Indian Act reflected the core assumptions held about Indigenous peoples by the dominant Euro-1 Wayne Dougherty and Dennis Madill, Indian Government under Indian Act Legislation, 1868-195 courts, Congress was passing the Indian Removal Act (1830). The act was initiated after the 1828 discovery of gold on Cherokee land in Georgia. Speculators hoping to profit from the discovery, including President Andrew Jackson, subsequently pressured Congress to find a way to legally divest the tribe of its land

Indian Act The Canadian Encyclopedi

Resource Library | this day in geographic history Resource Library this day in geographic history May 28, 1830 CE: Indian Removal Act May 28, 1830 CE: Indian Removal Act On May 28, 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, beginning the forced relocation of thousands of Native Americans in what became known as the Trail of Tears Sections 81, 83, and 85.1 of the Indian Act provide the authorities for First Nation councils to pass by-laws: section 81 This section deals with matters that are local in nature to the reserve, such as traffic control, residency, public health, nuisances and wildlife control The Indian Act is a Canadian federal law that governs in matters pertaining to Indian status, bands, and Indian reserves. Throughout history it has been highly invasive and paternalistic, as it authorizes the Canadian federal government to regulate and administer in the affairs and day-to-day lives of registered Indians and reserve communities 2 (1) In this Act, band means a body of Indians (a) for whose use and benefit in common, lands, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, have been set apart before, on or after September 4, 1951, (b) for whose use and benefit in common, moneys are held by Her Majesty, o

Text of Indian Civil Rights Act. The Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 (ICRA) (see Federal Laws), 25 U.S.C.§§ 1301-1304 (ICRA), provides as follows: § 1301. Definitions: For purposes of this subchapter, the ter Pass laws have been resisted in several significant instances. Examples of these include the first passive resistance campaign initiated by the Indian community in the Transvaal, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, in 1906. This campaign was over, amongst other things, the carrying of passes

The Pass System is a result of a five year investigation involving extensive, pan-Canadian archival research and elders' oral history testimony, revealing a system that appears to be much more widespread than previously thought. Nehiyaw, Saulteaux, Dene, Ojibwe and Niitsitapi Elders from Treaty areas 4, 6 & 7 (Saskatchewan & Alberta), tell. The notorious pass system was never part of the formal Indian Act regime. It began as a result of informal discussions among government officials in the early 1880s in response to the threat that prairie Indians might forge a pan-Indian alliance against Canadian authorities The Indian Act of 1876 was a solution to two pieces of previous legislation in 1857 and 1869 designed to assimilate indigenous people in this country. John A. certainly was on the prowl for land, and the numbered treaties, signed under ultimate duress due to starvation, were messy and applied to diverse groups Pass laws evolved from regulations that the Dutch and British enacted during the 18th-century and 19th-century enslavement economy of the Cape Colony. In the 19th century, new pass laws were enacted to ensure a steady supply of cheap African labor for the diamond and gold mines

The Pass System - An investigative documentary about

The Indian Act has historically stated that those with Indian status have rights to live on reserves, share in band monies, vote for band council and chief, and inherit band property. In 1985, an amendment to the Indian Act separated Indian status from band membership 1972: Indian Education Act enacted. Establishes the Office of Indian Education and the National Advisory Council on Indian Education. The various parts of the Act authorized a formula program and several competitive grant programs for Indian children and adults. 1974: PL 93-380 amends the Act to add a teacher training program and a fellowship.

The issuing of passes was one of the cornerstones of the colonial and later racial capitalism in South Africa. Passes were used to control the movement of African, Coloured and Indian people, ensuring the provision of a cheap labour source and enforcing the segregation of South African's along racial lines It was officially removed from the Indian Act in 1951. The Permit system remained in the Indian Act until 1995 (Tang 8). In order to leave the reserve, First Nations people had to attain a pass from the Indian Agent or Farm Instructor, giving a reason why they needed to leave, the duration, and whether or not they were travelling with a gun In 1850 the California legislature passed an Act for the Government and Protection of Indians that essentially forced many Native Americans into servitude. The law provided for the forced labor of..

The Act established a process whereby the President could grant land west of the Mississippi River to Indian tribes that agreed to give up their homelands After Jackson succeeded in pushing the Indian Removal Act through Congress in 1830, the U.S. government spent nearly 30 years forcing Indigenous peoples to move westward, beyond the Mississippi River The Government of India Act was passed by the British Government in the year 1935. It was one of the lengthiest Acts at that time as it contained 321 sections and 10 schedules The Act aims to provide a three-tier system of Panchayati Raj for all states having a population of over two million, to hold Panchayat elections regularly every five years, to provide seats reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women, to appoint a State Finance Commission to make recommendations regarding the financial powers of. Repealed regulations made under this Act Bands from the Operation of Section 32 of the Indian Act, Order Exempting [Repealed] (SOR/2010-28) Dakota Tipi Band Council Elections Order [Repealed] (SOR/2002-316

I am not yet prepared to pass a sweeping act of naturalization by which all the Indian savages, wild or tame, belonging to a tribal relation, are to become my fellow-citizens and go to the. The parliament passed the three bills in September, which were then signed into law by the president. Opposition parties accused the government of flouting parliamentary procedure by passing the.. The majority required to pass a resolution, motion, or a bill varies depending upon the purpose. As this is one of the most confusing areas for most students, we are coming up with a new post on the type of majorities used while voting in the Indian Parliament as well as State Legislatures. Types of Majorities as per the Indian Constitutio Parliament passed the Indian Act in 1876, giving the federal government enormous power over the control of registered First Nations people, bands and the reserve system. A decade ago the B.C.'s court of appeal ruled in McIvor v

21 things you may not know about the Indian Act CBC New

  1. Purposes of the Indian Reorganization Act. In 1887, Congress passed the General Allotment Act.The General Allotment Act divided tribal land into 80 and 160-acre parcels for individual tribal members.The allotments to individuals were to be held in trust for the Indian owners for no more than 25 years, after which the owner would hold fee title.
  2. The Government of India Act 1919 (9 & 10 Geo. 5 c. 101) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.It was passed to expand participation of Indians in the government of India.The Act embodied the reforms recommended in the report of the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, and the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford.The Act covered ten years, from 1919 to 1929
  3. What is the Indian Act? The Indian Act is a law first passed by Canada in 1876. It imposed government control over all Natives, covering many aspects of life. It focused on 3 main areas, however: band councils, reserves, and status (membership)
  4. President Roosevelt signed the Indian Reorganization Act (also called the Wheeler-Howard Act) on June 18, 1934. The law was designed, To conserve and develop Indian lands and resources; to extend to Indians the right to form business and other organizations; to establish a credit system for Indians; to grant certain rights of home rule to Indians; to provide for vocational education for.
  5. The Transfer Act, Public Law (P.L.) 83-568, transferred the authority for health care of Indians to the Public Health Service on August 5, 1954. Indian Health Care Improvement Act. The legislative base for authorization to collect from private insurance is contained in the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, P.L. 94-437, Amendments of 1988
  6. In another ridiculous law, the Indian Aircraft Act of 1934 considers a kite to also be an aircraft thus making it necessary to get a permit to fly one. As is apparent, this law has never been followed and should be dealt away with immediately

The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy. During the fall and winter of 1838 and 1839, the Cherokees. -- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/ . Make your own animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free. The Indian Removal Act and The Trail of Tears. The Indian Removal Act was the first major law passed by Andrew Jackson on May 28th, 1830. Andrew Jackson was the 7th president of the US and he despised the Indians, he made them walk from the east of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma

Indian Act and the Permit Syste

  1. BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS OFFICE OF TRIBAL SERVICES PUB.LAW 93-638, AS AMENDED REVISED: OCTOBER 20, 2004 Page 7 PUBLIC LAW 93-638 93rd CONGRESS, S. 1017 JANUARY 4, 1975, AS AMENDED AN ACT To provide maximum Indian participation in the Government and education of th
  2. On June 2, 1924, Congress enacted the Indian Citizenship Act, which granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S.The right to vote, however, was governed by state law; until 1957, some states barred Native Americans from voting. In a WPA interview from the 1930s, Henry Mitchell describes the attitude toward Native Americans in Maine, one of the last states to comply with the.
  3. atory policies, but it remains an imperfect document
  4. The Indian Act is a colonial law, imposed on what were seen as conquered peoples - a weird atavism of 19th-century legal thinking, surviving into the 21st
  5. But Congress passed the removal law in the spring of 1830. The Indian Removal Act offered tribes in the East lands in an area west of the Mississippi (soon to be called Indian Territory). The U.S. government promised to compensate the tribes for the property they would have to abandon
  6. Indian Probate. In December of 2005, President Bush signed the Indian Land Probate Reform Technical Corrections Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-157) which amends the Indian Land Consolidation Act to make technical amendments with regard to: (1) partition of highly fractionated Indian land; (2) tribal probate codes; (3) descent and distribution; (4) the fractional interest acquisition program; (5.

In 1978, Congress worked closely with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) elected officials, child welfare experts, and families whose children had been unnecessarily removed from their homes to pass the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA). ICWA was designed to protect AI/AN childre During which decades did the US government pass all of the Indian Appropriation Acts? 1850-1880s. In 1887, the passage of the Dawes Act introduced the government's system of. land allotments. Which of the following describes an effect of the allotment system? American Indians lost their land

'The Pass System' explores dark chapter in Canadian

The announcement of the SARFAESI Act has been a standard reform in the Indian banking sector. This act has grown progressively which can be seen with the decrease in the non-performing assets. At present there are three legal options which are available for the purpose of NPA's which is the SARFAESI Act, Debt Recovery Tribunals (DRT) and Lok. The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted in 1978 in response to a crisis affecting American Indian and Alaska Native children, families, and tribes. Studies revealed that large numbers of Native children were being separated from their parents, extended families, and communities by state child welfare and private adoption agencies

In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, which directed the executive branch to negotiate for Indian lands. This act, in combination with the discovery of gold and an increasingly untenable position within the state of Georgia, prompted the Cherokee Nation to bring suit in the U.S. Supreme Court. In United States v The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 introduced the teaching of Indian history and culture in BIA schools, which contrasted with the federal policy at the time of acculturating and assimilating Indian people through the BIA boarding school system. The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975 (P.L. 90-638) gave authority. Lord Ripon the viceroy of India to pass the factory act: Important reforms and achievements Lord Ripon was the man who worked for the betterment of native Indians and wanted to expand and improve the condition of education in the country

After the Government of India Act of 1858, the higher civil service in India came to be known as the Indian Civil Services (ICS). The Indian Civil Services Act of 1861 provided that certain posts under the Government of India were to be reserved for persons who had been a resident of India for 7 years or more The facilities are owned or leased by Urban Indian organizations and receive grant and contract funding through Title V of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act.. To be eligible to participate in the 340B Drug Pricing Program, these health centers must be operated by programs funded under P.L. 93-638 or 25 USCS §1651 Text for S.47 - 116th Congress (2019-2020): John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act Congress upped its ante against the Modi government, terming the move a conspiracy to defeat the Green Revolution.Slamming the government, Congress leader Gaurav Gogoi said: This government has been eyeing, how they can take the farmers' land to benefit their capitalist friends, whether is the Land Acquisition Act, whether in the industrial.

Pass laws - Wikipedi

Stay Orders - A termite in the Indian Justice System. A recent decision by the Supreme Court has set a new precedent by specifying a time limit and its applicability on the operation of stay orders. Indefinite stay orders act like a termite in the Indian Justice system. This right usually gets mocked and abused by the wrong doers for their. In early 1921, the newly inaugurated President Warren Harding called Congress back to a special session to pass the law. In 1922, the act was renewed for another two years. When the Congressional debate over immigration began in 1924, the quota system was so well-established that no one questioned whether to maintain it, but rather discussed.

Pass laws in South Africa 1800-1994 South African

Follow the Past through Arkansas’ Heritage Trails

Indian Treaties and the Removal Act of 1830. The U.S. Government used treaties as one means to displace Indians from their tribal lands, a mechanism that was strengthened with the Removal Act of 1830. In cases where this failed, the government sometimes violated both treaties and Supreme Court rulings to facilitate the spread of European. The series of acts passed by Parliament during the 1760s and 1770s is what initially sparked the unrest that led to the American Revolution.. The acts regulated trade and commerce in the colonies and were passed to help pay off the debt that the British government had incurred during the French and Indian War.. The colonies resented the acts and felt they were a blatant attempt to make money. The Indian Institutes of Management Act, 2017 : Indian Institutes of Management Act 2017.pdf: 33 : 23 : The Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act, 2017 : A2017-15.pdf: 15 : List Of Acts Of 2016; S. No. Name of Acts Attachment File Act No. 24 : The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016. The fact that Canada's system was and is an apartheid system has been very apparent to Indigenous leaders for a long time. For example, former prime minister Jean Chrétien has stated that when he was minister of Indian Affairs in the 1960s, the chiefs demanded an end to what they themselves called an apartheid system The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2009, 18 U.S.C. § 249 The Shepard Byrd Act makes it a federal crime to willfully cause bodily injury, or attempt to do so using a dangerous weapon, because of the victim's actual or perceived race, color, religion, or national origin

This timeline was created for the Museum of The San

Here is what Sir John A

  1. The Right to Information Act, 2005 ('RTI Act') allows Indian citizens to obtain information held by any public authority, subject to specified exceptions for national interest, legislative privilege and right to privacy. Further, the RTI Act requires public authorities to publicly disclose certain types of information relating to their.
  2. The Indian Contract Act 1872 stipulates that an agreement by which anyone is restrained from exercising a lawful profession, trade or business of any kind, is to that extent void. A restrictive covenant, such as non-compete, extending beyond the term of service is void, irrespective of reasonability of such restriction, except in cases.
  3. At that time, perhaps even today, this was the largest installation of GNU/Linux in schools, and made headlines even in other countries. Every year, from 2007 onwards, about 500,000 children pass out of the schools learning the concepts behind Free Software and the GNU/Linux operating system and applications
  4. On February 8, 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Act, named for its author, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts. Also known as the General Allotment Act, the law allowed for the President to break up reservation land, which was held in common by the members of a tribe, into small allotments to be parceled out to individuals
  5. Under the Indian Removal Act of 1830, thousands of Natives Americans were forced to make the treacherous journey to land west of the Mississippi River through harsh weather conditions. Many died on the journey to their new homes and were buried on the Trail of Tears, which was the final resting place for a quarter of the Cherokee population
  6. The Indian immigrant often went before the courts as victims of the labour laws and the legal system in general. The planter had at his disposal several instruments of prosecution. He could prosecute for refusal to commence work, or work left unfinished, absenteeism without authority, disorderly or threatening behaviour, or even neglect
Propulsion System Readied for Australian Icebreaker

Protection & Advocacy System (P&As) P&As were created in the DD Act to protect the legal and human rights of individuals with developmental disabilities through legal action and advocacy in every state and territory, as well as within a Native American program. Initiated in 1975 to protect individuals with developmental disabilities living in. The CAA, which relaxes eligibility criteria for certain categories of migrants from three countries seeking Indian citizenship, exempts certain categories of areas, including those protected by the Inner Line system. Amid protests against the Act, the Adaptation of Laws (Amendment) Order, 2019, issued by the President, amended the BEFR, 1873. Stefan Trines, Research Editor, WENR. Abstract: This education system profile provides an in-depth overview of the structure of India's education system, its academic institutions, quality assurance mechanisms, and grading practices, as well as trends in outbound and inbound student mobility.To place current education reforms and mobility trends into context, we will first provide an. The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948; The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (yet to be reviewed) The Family Courts Act, 1984; The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 (19 of 1929) The Foreign Marriage Act, 1969 (33 of 1969) The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1979 ; The Indian Divorce Act, 1969 (4 of 1969 The Indian Removal Act set the stage for the forced removals of the Cherokees, Creeks, and other southern Native American nations that took place during the 1830s. President Jackson's annual message of December 1829 contained extensive remarks on the present and future state of American Indians in the United States

Indian Reservations - HISTOR

CARES Act PIH Notice 2020-24 (Sept. 14, 2020) Extension of period of availability and Financial Reporting of CARES Act Supplemental Funding COVID-19 FAQs for Public Housing Agencie (a) Short title.—This title may be cited as the Voter Empowerment Act of 2021. (b) Statement of policy.—It is the policy of the United States that— (1) the ability of all eligible citizens of the United States to access and exercise their constitutional right to vote in a free, fair, and timely manner must be vigilantly enhanced, protected, and maintained; an The final section, titled The act as law and containing dated material, has been omitted in the electronic version. NOTES . 1. The New York Times, June 27, 28, 1938; Harry S. Kantor, Two Decades of the Fair Labor Standards Act, Monthly Labor Review, October 1958, pp. 1097-98. 2 The legislation cleared parliament's lower house where the BJP has a large majority, but it did not pass in the upper house, after violent anti-migrant protests in north-eastern India

Act expanded ombudsman coverage to board and care homes. 1984. Reauthorization of the Older Americans Act clarified and reaffirmed the roles of State and Area Agencies on Aging in coordinating community-based services, and in maintaining accountability for the funding of national priority services (legal, access, & in-home) The position of a judge is the most respected post in the Indian legal system. Candidates appointed through Judicial Services Examination enjoy a secure and comfortable tenure. A career in judicial services has two levels since farmers from three states stared opposing i was just eager to know the new farm laws which indian government has introduce.i have of opinion that few farm leaders are notin to talking to give solution to improve on ferms laws.they are in to repealing the law. i dont understand their logic? and opposition are havingn fun.we should know the background check of farmers leaders.sorry to say. The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) requires that active efforts, as opposed to reasonable efforts, be provided to native children who come into contact with the child welfare system. The Oregon Legislation has provided DHS with 9 Active Efforts positions to help assure DHS complies with the Act On this date, the House passed the 1924 Immigration Act—a measure which was a legislative expression of the xenophobia, particularly towards eastern and southern European immigrants, that swept America in the decade of the 1920s. Authored by Representative Albert Johnson of Washington (Chairman of the House Immigration Committee), the bill passed with broad support from western and southern.

the Social Security Act (the Act) for payment under the State's payment system. The excluded services are limited to those paid under the State's payment system as described in §1814 (b) (3) of * the Act. In addition, Indian health service hospitals and hospitals located in Saipan, American Samoa The Act for the Better Government of India as passed and received the Royal assent on August 2, 1858. This act provided that India was to be governed directly and in the name of the crown. This act is coterminous with Queen Victoria's declaration, 1858. Provisions of the Act. Transferred powers from the East India Company to the Crown

Today, the AMBER Alert system is being used in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Indian country, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and 33 other countries. As of December 2020, 1,029 children have been successfully recovered through the AMBER Alert system One commenter requested pass-through entities to have access to enter information into the FAPIIS system and require a pass-through entity review as part of the risk assessment process. the Indian tribes or tribal organizations, as defined in the Indian Self Determination in the Foundations of Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018. The passage of the General Allotment Act of 1887, also known as the Dawes Act, greatly expanded the practice. This expansion had devastating consequences for Native Americans. Under the Dawes Act and other tribe-specific allotment acts, the federal government allotted a specified amount of land, usually 80 or 160 acres, to each tribal member

A Call to Arms to save the largest open-air assemblage of

The Pass System - YouTub

CIVIL SERVICE ACT. Early advocates of a civil service believed that it was necessary to reform the spoils system, a process by which an individual who supported the election of a candidate was rewarded with a position in the government.Rather than personal favors, these reformers wanted some type of test of merit, or required qualifications for persons appointed to non-elected positions in. American Indian Urban Relocation The U.S. government's efforts to assimilate American Indians into mainstream culture can be seen throughout the 20th century in the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) activities. In 1953, the U.S. Congress established a new policy towards American Indians: termination. This policy eliminated much government support for Indian tribes and ended th An agreement to do an act impossible in itself cannot be enforced as per section 29 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872. It is the general rule that the promisors of the contract to perform the promise but there other persons also who may perform under certain circumstances such as an agent if appointed by the promisor for this purpose, legal.

Overview. The Commerce Clause refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian. Congress has often used the Commerce Clause to justify exercising legislative power over the activities of states and their citizens, leading to significant and ongoing. In 1921, the Federal Highway Act increased funding for federal roads to $75 million per year. Lewis explains that by the end of the 1920s, the BPR had spent $750 million for roads. The 1921 act, he writes, made real the idea of a national road system. Each state would designate seven percent of its roads to be linked with those in other. As noted in the Paperwork Reduction Act section, as of June 20, 2019, there were 159,477 unique Federal financial assistance registrants in the System for Awards Management (SAM). According to data accessed from www.usaspending.gov , in FY 2018, approximately 2,952 small businesses who received awards for other types of Start Printed Page 3773. Legislative change is certainly useful in addressing the crisis facing the legal system with respect to Indigenous people. Section 718.2(e) is an example of legislation that has made a difference. There is no doubt that if and when some of the more regressive aspects of the previous government's criminal law agenda come off the books, there.

Navigating this complex system makes development and growth difficult on Indian lands. One such difficulty is fractionated land ownership. Federal inheritance laws required many Indian lands to be. voters pass Initiative 40, repealing the poll tax. Poll taxes are used in many states as a way to discriminate against certain voters. 1924 The Indian Citizenship Act grants Native Americans citizenship and voting rights. 1912 Washington voters amend the State Constitution, giving citizens the power to propose initiatives and referenda; th

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